Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Efficacy: Fact or Fiction?
<< Previous Page - Page 3 of 3
CBT effectiveness questioned by scientists
The idea that CBT is more effective than other forms of therapy is a myth, according to leading psychotherapy experts that attended a major conference during July 6-10 2008 at the University of East Anglia in Norwich, England (CBT superiority, 7 Jul 2008). In this conference, professors Robert Elliott and Beth Freire presented a meta-analysis of more than 80 studies where person centered and related therapies (PCTs) were shown to be equally effective to CBT and other forms of psychotherapy (Elliott & Freire, 2008). Professors William B. Stiles (Miami University), Robert Elliott and Mick Cooper (both University of Strathclyde) and Art Bohart (Saybrook Graduate School) issued a joint statement on July 7th. The main points of their statement are:
- More researchers focus on CBT, they publish more studies on the effectiveness of CBT and this reinforces the myth that CBT is superior.
- This has a negative effect on other forms of psychotherapy, despite the fact that their efficacy is well documented.
- People who receive psychotherapy do improve, regardless of the type of therapy they receive.
- When different types of psychotherapy are compared in scientific studies, in most cases they have the same effectiveness.
It is scientifically unjustified to spend disproportionate amounts of money on CBT and discourage other forms of psychotherapy.
Professor Andrew Samuels at the Centre for Psychoanalytic Studies in the University of Essex, criticized the discriminating CBT promotion and increasing funding that occurs in UK, against all other forms of psychotherapy. According to Samuels, all models of psychotherapy (including CBT) are about equally effective and that the client-therapist relationship is very important for the outcome of therapy (Samuels, Dec 2008).
- Arkowitz, H., & Lilienfeld, S.O. (2006, April/May). Psychotherapy on trial. Scientific American Mind, 2, 42-49.
- Berkman LF, Blumenthal J, Burg M, Carney RM, Catellier D, Cowan MJ, Czajkowski SM, DeBusk R, Hosking J, Jaffe A, Kaufmann PG, Mitchell P, Norman J, Powell LH, Raczynski JM, Schneiderman N. (2003) Effects of treating depression and low-perceived social support on clinical events after myocardial infarction – the enhancing recovery in coronary heart disease patients (ENRICHD) randomized trial. JAMA, 289, 3106 -3116.
- Beynon, S., Soares-Weiser, K., Woolacott, N., Duffy, S., Geddes, J. R. (2008). Psychosocial interventions for the prevention of relapse in bipolar disorder: systematic review of controlled trials. British Journal of Psychiatry, 192: 5-11
- CBT superiority questioned at conference. (7 Jul 2008). Retrieved April 2, 2009, from University of East Anglia Web site.
- Churchill R, Hunot V, Corney R, Knapp M, McGuire H, Tylee A, Wessely S. (2001). A systematic review of controlled trials of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of brief psychological treatments for depression. Health Technology Assessment, 5, 1 –173.
- Drury V, Birchwood M, Cochrane R. (2000). Cognitive therapy and recovery from acute psychosis: a controlled trial: 3. Five-year follow-up. Br. J. Psychiatry 177: 8-14
- Durham RC, Chambers JA, MacDonald RR, Power KG, Major K (2003): Does cognitive behavioral therapy influence the long-term outcome of generalized anxiety disorder? An 8-14 year follow-up of two clinical trials. Psychol Med 33:499-509.
- Durham RC, Chambers JA, Power KG, Sharp DM, Macdonald RR, Major KA, Dow MGT, Gumley AL (2005): Long-term outcome of cognitive behaviour therapy clinical trials in central Scotland. Health Technol Assess 9:1-174.
- Elliott, R., Freire, B. (2008). Person-Centred Experiential Therapies Are Highly Effective: Summary of the 2008 Meta-analysis. Retrieved April 8, 2009, from The British Association for the Person-Centered Approach Web site.
- Goodyer IM, Dubicka B., Wilkinson P., Kelvin R., Roberts C., Byford S., et al (2008) A randomised controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy in adolescents with major depression treated by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The ADAPT trial. Health technology Assessment 12: No.14
- Kuipers E, Fowler D, Garety P, Chisholm D, Freeman D, Dunn G, Bebbington P, Hadley C. (1997) London-East Anglia randomised controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for psychosis. I: effects of the treatment phase. Br J Psychiatry, 171:319–327.
- Kuipers E, Fowler D, Garety P, Chisholm D, Freeman D, Dunn G, Bebbington P, Hadley C. (1998) London-East Anglia randomised controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for psychosis, III: follow-up and economic evaluation at 18 months. Br J Psychiatry, 173:61-68.
- Leichsenring, F. (2001). Comparative effects of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy in depression: A meta-analytic approach. Clinical Psychology Review, 21, 401-419.
- Leichsenring, F., & Leibing, E. (2007). Psychodynamic psychotherapy: A systematic review of techniques, indications and empirical evidence. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 80, 217-228.
- Malouff JM, Thorsteinsson EB, Rooke SE, Bhullar N, Schutte NS, (June 2008). Efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome: a meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev 28 (5): 736-45.
- Montgomery, P., Dennis, J. (2003) Cognitive behavioural interventions for sleep problems in adults aged 60+. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, issue 1.
- Price JR, Mitchell E, Tidy E, Hunot V. (2008) Cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 3.
- Samuels, A. (December 2008). What's Wrong with CBT? Retrieved March 11, 2009, from Andrew Samuels Website.
- Tarrier N, Yusupoff L, Kinney C, McCarthy E, Gledhill A, Haddock G, Morris J. (1998) Randomised controlled trial of intensive cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with chronic schizophrenia. BMJ, 317:303-307.
- Tarrier, N., Wittkowski, A., Kinney, C., McCarthy, E ., Morris, J., and Humphreys, L., (1999) Durability of the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia: 12-month follow-up. British Journal of Psychiatry, 174, 500–504.
- Tarrier, N., Kinney, C., McCarthy, E., et al (2000) Two-year follow-up of cognitive–behavioral therapy and supportive counseling in the treatment of persistent symptoms in chronic schizophrenia. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 917 –922.
- Tarrier, N., Lewis, S., Haddock, G., Bentall, R., Drake, R., Kinderman, P., Kingdon, D., Siddle, R., Everitt, J., Leadley, K., Benn, A., Grazebrook, K., Haley, C., Akhtar, S., Davies, L., Palmer, S., Dunn, G. (2004). Cognitive-behavioral therapy in first-episode and early schizophrenia: 18-month follow-up of a randomised controlled trial. Br. J. Psychiatry, 184: 231-239
- Tarrier N. (2005) Congitive behavioral therapy for schizophrenia. A review of development, evidence and implementation. Psychoth and Psychosom, 74:136-144.
- Trockel, M., Burg, M., Jaffe, A., Barbour, K., and Taylor, C. B., (2008) Smoking Behavior Postmyocardial Infarction Among ENRICHD Trial Participants: Cognitive Behavior Therapy Intervention for Depression and Low Perceived Social Support Compared With Care as Usual. Psychosom Med, 70(8): 875 - 882.
- What is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. (n. d.). Retrieved March 9, 2009, from The West Australian branch of the Australian Association for Cognitive behavioral Therapy Web site.
- What is Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy? (n. d.). Retrieved April 3, 2009, from The National Association of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapists Online Headquarters Web site.
<< Previous Page - Page 3 of 3
A. S. Petridis, Ph.D.
10 April 2009